Branding – It’s All About Personality – Stupid!


In increasingly competitive markets, standing out from the crowd is not just a question of what you say but how you say it.

Line up a row of unbranded beers on the bar; how many of us can really tell the difference based on taste? And how many of us can really name the brand? Very few and even fewer we suspect. All of this goes to show the importance of brand positioning and communication. While beers do offer different benefits such as sociability and refreshment, the range of possible benefits is still relatively limited. This makes it hard to stand-out via the benefit message alone.  Yet, there are an infinite number of ways of expressing the benefit message. For example, though humour, being down-to-earth, authoritative or charming. Several brands assume personality traits that match the provenance of beers. Fosters and Castlemaine XXXX both assume stereotypical Australian male personalities. Both are laddish, blokey, witty – they suggest have a good time and male bonding.

If products are people, then brands are friends or lovers

Let’s look at this another way. What do you look for in a partner, a mate? Beyond the flippant, “And Mrs. Daniels, what attracted you to the multi-millionaire Paul?” what really attracted you to your partner? In addition to physical attributes it mostly comes down to personality. Most likely the answer will be a very specific and distinctive combination of personality traits.

Search for and express, a distinctive combination of personality traits to define brands

In humans, the range of personality traits is almost infinite. So apply the same thinking process to brands. To start to appreciate the range of variables just let your imagination go; Spiderman – young, flawed and broody, a superhero; Ruby Wax – comedienne, self-deprecating, game-on for a good cause; Fagin (in Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist) dirty, a thief, miser, teacher, carer ……?

Brand personality mapped to Myers Briggs

Archetypes provide familiar constructs

Archetypes are forms, images or myths which occur all over the earth. Originally advanced by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, archetypes have been present in folklore and literature for thousands of years. Jung originally identified five archetypes including the Anima (feminine image in a man’s psyche), Animus (the masculine image in a woman’s psyche) and the Shadow (the opposite of the ego image). Margaret Mark and Carol Pearson expanded Jung’s range of archetypes, and outlined twelve basic archetypes in their 2001 book – The Hero and the Outlaw – Building Extraordinary Brands through the Power of Archetypes.

The strongest brands tend to clearly reflect single archetypes. For example, Nike has a ‘hero’ brand personality. It takes its name from the ancient Greek goddess who personified victory. Think heroes overcoming monsters, such as St. George slaying the dragon, and apply this to competitive sport. Think beating an opponent, or the monster within, your inner self, frailty or lack of confidence. Applying archetypes to brands helps them stand-out and connect with customers. Conducting archetypal market analysis can also help spot opportunities to challenge category conventions.

Create communication stimulus to express whatto say and howto say it

To help explore and define brand personality and positioning we often create mock-up advertisements, like mini press ads or posters. We use advertising (sometimes called brandcepts) because it is familiar, clear and comprehensible to customers. Creating and using mock-up advertising helps provoke, intrigue and engage. In turn this helps them express what is interesting and appealing and why.

By creating a vast number of mini adverts, allows a very large range of brand positioning ideas including both rational and emotional benefit messages and style and tone of communication to be explored.

Brand personality stimulus

Brand personality analysis and definition

Through qualitative research it is then possible to explore what is interesting, different and persuasive to customers. Analysis reveals what is working and why, and what is not working and why, helping to focus on the small number of hot ideas for further exploration. Quantitative analysis helps reveal the sweet-spot for communication – the most appealing and persuasive combination of benefits and ways of speaking.

Brand positioning outputs include messages, and visual and language guidelines that can be understood and acted upon by communication teams, product developers and front-line staff.

Some proprietary, personality indicators, for example, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator helps analyse personality types in terms of four pairs of dichotomies such as thinking – feeling and extraversion – introversion. These are understood by human resources colleagues and potentially useful in helping apply brand personality concepts to organisation cultures and to inform people behaviour, recruitment and reward procedures. All can help deliver a consistent experience through multiple encounters from advertising and websites to call centres and retail operations.


Make sure a distinctive brand personality is at the heart of your brand positioning. It can enable more effective communications and relationship building through all encounters that customers have with your brand. If you are #2 or #3 in a category it could transform your brand and help you get and stay ahead.

Brand positioning and brand personality models come in all shapes, sizes and degrees of complexity. What’s right for you depends on your starting place, competitive context as well as the size of the potential prize.

Read more about transforming brands into super brands by adding brand personality.

Read The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants’ brand positioning success story.

Black Friday and Cyber Monday Offers! Should You Beat or Join them?

With Black Friday and Cyber Monday coming soon we ask what’s what and whether you should beat them or join them?

What is Black Friday?

Black Friday is a super special offer retail shopping day. It originated in the USA, and since 2003 has become the most popular shopping day of the year when nearly all retailers in the country run sales. Black Friday is now a popular event in other countries including Canada, Mexico, India and the UK. Most recently it has been embraced in Australia (2011) and France, Germany and South Africa (2014).

Origins of Black Friday

Black Friday marks the unofficial beginning of the Christmas season. It’s a day when retailers’ profits are said to turn ‘black’ from ‘red’. Though the term ‘black’ may also be borrowed from the financial markets to describe days when share prices fall dramatically (1). Being the Friday after Thanksgiving, many US employers give their employees the day off as part of the holiday weekend. Discounting emerged as a means to entice traffic into stores to start their Christmas shopping. As competition increased so did the breadth and depth of discounting.

What is Cyber Monday

Cyber Monday is a super special offer online shopping day. It takes place the Monday after Thanksgiving and Black Friday.

Origins of Cyber Monday

As Black Friday has grown so Cyber Monday has emerged to further extend the US holiday shopping weekend and provide a sales window for online and smaller suppliers. It also originated in the USA though has now spread to Canada and France (2008), UK (2009), Germany (2010), Australia (2012) and others.

Marketing Observations

In the USA where Black Friday first emerged as a concept, sales peaked at $59bn in 2012 and have since fallen steadily to $51bn in 2014. For context, Cyber Monday sales were approximately $3bn in 2014. This suggests that the ‘Black Friday’ bubble may be bursting.

In countries where the Black Friday and Cyber Monday concepts are new, sales have been frenzied, and generated both positive and negative publicity.

In the UK, Black Friday promotions have been trailed well in advance of the day, and some participants have extended the offer period to a week or longer. Asda for example, has eschewed Black Friday, claiming their prices will be permanently low. Others such as Jigsaw refuse to participate claiming to be ‘above’ offers.

In turn this has prompted the rise of #buynothingday (3) an international day of protest against consumerism. Participation now includes 65 countries.

Marketing Inspiration

1. Beware of the pitfalls in using price-led special offers. Risks are simply to drive down prices, commoditise markets, bring forward sales and reduce future income.

2. While there is an argument that a simple price-led offer is a rational offer relying on simply logical thinking, recent research using brain imaging (fMRI) shows that this is untrue. More strongly discounted offers do actually cause pleasure seeking parts of the brain (the nucleus accumbens), and the decision making parts of the brain (medial prefrontal cortex) to light-up while the pain sensing area (insula) remains inactive (2). Thus it is reasonable to conclude that there are significant emotional benefits, and suppressed pain, to be gained from special offers.

3. Special offers are most effective when designed to meet very clear and specific customer objectives. So think clearly what those objectives are and design the mechanic so it works for you. Use creativity and the power of your brand to enhance the emotional benefits!

4. Use promotion events to gain a strategic advantage rather than bring forward sales. For example, by benefiting from the extra attention gifted by the event to attract new triallists or users, standing out from the crowd and reinforcing reputation, or improving loyalty. Here’s our own unashamed special offer for marketers who want to gain an edge on The Marketing Director’s Handbook – the only book that covers the marketing and management aspects of the role .


2. Rick, Scott, Nutson, Brian and others. Neural Predictors of Purchase, Neuron (2007)

Business Planning; A Simplified Process. Infographic

In this fast moving digital world, technology is ever-changing and brands are relegated to a handful of keywords. The only constants are customers and brands. Successful business development requires rigorous analysis of opportunities and creativity. It requires a plan to put the customer at the heart of decision making, and creativity to build the brand. Customers, creativity and brands are the realm of marketing.

Start by understanding where your business and brand is now and where you want to be in the future. Only by knowing where you want to be will you be able to plan how to get there. Then work with your colleagues to develop strategies to overcome the obstacles en route to your destination. Here’s a simplified process to follow.

Strategic planning process

Read a longform version of this article on our marketing consultancy website.

Marketing: Post-Digital Marketing – Success Factors for the New Era

We opened The Marketing Director’s Handbook by referring to the Bob Dylan classic ‘The Times They Are A-Changing’. Change is the lifeblood of marketing. Understanding it, and adapting to it, is Darwinian theory applied to marketing.

When a new era begins, it manifests as a hybrid of the past and the future. Remember how LPs gave way to CDs and now the likes of Spotify; how celluloid gave way to tv, then Betamax, VHS, satellite, DVD, You Tube, Netflix et al. Sometimes it is difficult to see the wood for the trees during a period of change. Sometimes there is resistance to change or an inability to embrace it. There are always leaders and followers, and those that judge incorrectly. The result is that new opportunities pass by some businesses leaving them shadows of their former selves. Equally some adapt and become more successful.

Digital marketing has given way to post-digital marketing. While there remain an enormous number of digital disciplines, and specialists occupying a variety of niches, the specialists are increasingly becoming mainstream. Joining together to provide a greater range of services, being absorbed into larger groups, or broadening their focus. In the same way, digital has merged with traditional marketing to create new value propositions, new brands, new business models and new routes to market.

Rightmove, a new digital brand

Rightmove, founded in 2006, is now the UK’s number 1 property site

Examples are everywhere. From or, to Rightmove, Uber to new Government services, to ALS’s ‘Ice Bucket Challenge’, Always’ ‘Like a Girl’ and Sport England’s ‘This Girl Can’ media campaigns. So what constitutes success?

Post-digital marketers put the customer first.

They understand his or her needs, attitudes and meet them. This wasn’t the case in the late 1990s Internet boom. It’s the reason so many businesses went bust. Back then I recall a well-known client, who had spent the best part of a million on a new website looking for evidence they spent their money wisely – with a budget equal to just 2 customer groups. Today’s digital marketers have learned the folly of pushing technology when there is no evidence of a need. They better understand and manage the risks and rewards.
Post-digital marketers know how to maximise their promotion bangs for bucks.
They know it’s the combination of insight, a great idea and digital connectivity must come together to generate awareness and demand. Always’ ‘Like a Girl’ video has been viewed over 85m times and rising. It echoes yet rebuffs a stereotype, it connects emotionally and the pay-off is feel-good. It gets a message across at much lower cost than a traditional tv advertising campaign. In the post-digital world digital is mainstream, a creative communication and distribution vehicle, on a par with the 30 second Coronation Street slot and Tesco gondola end. It’s why Marc. S. Prichard, P&G Global Brand Officer, says the company is quickly shifting to a digital-first approach to building brands.
Post-digital marketers use multiple of methods to capture customers.

Ice Bucket Challenge

One of the many folk dunked during the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

They recognise we live in an always on world. It isn’t enough to plan and launch campaigns. The days of shot-gun marketing are gone, though post digital marketers need to be more like gamekeepers. Setting traps, baiting, luring and nurturing (less than wild) life 24-7. Understanding where customers are, when, how they behave, what is required to engage and build relationships. The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge was a success because it fulfilled participants’ desire to socialise (reach out and connect with mates), look good (even if the experience was a little self-deprecating), and entertain. ALS understood the criteria for social sharing, and in so doing found an idea to promote its good cause. And probably in that order.
Post-digital marketers plan budgets to achieve outcomes.
At a recent Chartered Institute of Marketing event on how CMOs should influence CFOs, we asked for a show of hands on how delegates planned their budgets. Most take what they are given, or start with last year’s budget and increase it in line with expected sales. Less than 5% calculate the impacts and cost of impacts to meet the required sales. A post-digital marketer uses the ‘objective and task’ method and knows the relative promotion costs per sale across all media. He or she doesn’t view the digital budget in isolation. This also requires the customer’s journey, the media consumed, and enablers and barriers to demand at each stage to be understood. Only then can media be planned to intervene, at the right time, with the right message, and right impacts to change behaviour.
Post-digital marketers know how to maximise their promotion bangs for bucks.
They are sceptical of the relationship between impacts, clicks and sales. In the world of Google, as well as tv, there is lots of waste. They know what they don’t know. They know they don’t know who clicked and why. Understanding cause and effect relationships is difficult but they know it must be done. They look before they leap and test, learn and then replan promotion activities. They invest in small-scale tests before going large. They use econometrics to clarify causes and effects.  They may take a risk on a new medium but it is a calculated risk.
Post-digital marketing means connecting with the business.
While digital is code, and the realm of coders, coders are no longer just hunched over a computer in a back office. Digital should not be separate from, or different to, ‘business as usual’. Post-digital marketers have come out of closet; they are rightfully understanding and connecting with customers and influencing the business.
Marketing Inspiration
1. Post-digital marketing is business marketing. As business leaders, CEOs and CMOs define the entire business strategy, of which digital strategy is one important element.

2. CMOs and CIOs should work together – and with the customer as the arbiter of what’s right.

3. Focus on optimising products, creating new products, choosing the right distribution and promotion channels as well as getting your message across.

4. Stay truthful and authentic. The digital world is subject to more scrutiny, less forgiving and word travels very fast.

To make the most of the post-digital marketing world, get in touch with our marketing consultancy. We focus on putting customers at the heart of business strategy. We’re founder members of the Handmade Digital Cooperative though media neutral.

David and Goliath : Underdogs, Misfits and the Art of Battling Giants – Book Review by Guy Tomlinson

An inspirational read

This is an inspiring read for anyone wishing to start a business or grow bigger. Malcolm Gladwell is staff writer on the New Yorker magazine and author of the best seller ‘Outliers – the anatomy of success’. He is also one of the most insightful people on the planet – I’m working my way through all of his books! The book reveals an armoury of ideas that could help shift the balance of power between the minnows and the mighty.

The art of battling giants

While we all know that David did triumph over Goliath, the book is also heavy with facts, and describes many unfamiliar aspects to this story!

Packed with insights

Did you also know?

That Richard Branson one of the world’s wealthiest multi-billionaires is dyslexic? We’re treated to many examples of individual success that arose through personal disadvantage.

In a story about a US schoolgirl league basketball team that was light on skills, the coach equipped the team with disruptive tactics and a hard working ethic which enabled them to beat better ranked opponents.

To raise awareness and gain public sympathy for the US civil rights movement, the organisers of an Alabama demonstration tricked the authorities into a confrontation which led to lots of bad PR (and inspired a step change in support for the civil rights cause).

The Impressionist painters were originally refused access to the Paris Salon exhibitions of the day so they started their own show. By creating a new pond in which to swim allowed them to be seen and grow big.

Marketing Inspiration

By applying some of the themes in the book to businesses, here are a handful of lessons that can help minnows triumph over the mighty:

  1. Competing on different terms, for example using different strengths, to your adversaries can provide an advantage.
  2. Sheer tenacity and drive can triumph over complacency or unwariness. Working harder can also be both a recipe and message for success (cf. ‘we try harder’ – Avis).
  3. Superior knowledge of your opponent can provide an edge.
  4. Weaknesses can be a source of hidden strength. Look hard to discover what they could be.
  5. Avoid being hidebound by current industry conventions and think differently i.e. ‘zig’ when everyone else is ‘zagging’. Virgin Atlantic, for example, was devised by a group of Virgin employees with no airline experience whatsoever. This helped them establish a distinctive new offering.

Gladwell, Malcolm, David and Goliath – Underdogs, Misfits and the Art of Battling Giants (2013)

Humour in Advertising: What works?

Did you know? In North America, 52% of adverts are considered ‘funny’ or ‘light-hearted’ and just 48% have ‘no intended humour’ whereas in Asia Pacific just a third are considered humourous (1).


humour in advertising

Incidence of humour in advertising

But does that mean you should use humour, or that humour always increases sales? We investigate to help you spend your ad budget wisely!

Funnier ads are more memorable

According to Nielsen’s Trust in Advertising survey humour resonates more than any other type of content (2).  According to Millward Brown’s advertising awareness tracker, the more humourous the ad, the more impactful it is likely to be i.e. the more likely the ad is to be recalled (1).

Impact of humourous advertising

Impact of humourous advertising

This is because humour is disarming, involving – it lowers barriers to engagement. To draw an analogy with human inter-relationships, we’re generally more attracted to ‘funny’ people! So it may be unsurprising that humour is used in almost half of the world’s advertising.

Response to humour and some humour codes differs by region

The relative impact of humour differs by region of the world. Humourous adverts have much higher impact in North America and Europe than in Africa/Middle East, Asia Pacific and Latin America. The North American and European regions also have the highest incidence of humourous adverts which suggest these factors are related. These Western regions also have the most developed economies (larger gross domestic product/capita) and much higher expenditures on advertising than other areas (3). The advertising industries are equally larger and more developed – having spurred, and grown to respond to, increasingly competitive markets. Conversely, consumers are less exposed to advertising in less developed markets. Thus it is reasonable to conclude that ads have a lesser impact because there is a lesser need for more ‘sophisticated’ messages and/or consumers are less responsive to ‘humourous’ messages .

Cultural differences also have a bearing. In less open societies, for example in parts of Asia and the Middle East countries blue humour (references to sex, body parts) are taboo (4). Sarcasm is not appreciated in China and irony (feigned ignorance) appears peculiarly British.

Conversely some humour codes appear universally appealing. For example, slapstick (childish humour), such as ‘pie in the face’ gags as ‘performed’ by clowns. Also poking fun at minorities; Pommies (the English) in Australia, the Irish (in England), the Belgians (in France), the Spanish (the Portuguese), the Poles (the USA) and the Germans (Poland). Though in our UK experience, there is an increasing fine-line between poking fun and xenophobia (a reflection of an increasingly diverse and politically correct society).

Humour doesn’t always drive brand engagement

While humourous ads are more impactful, they are slightly less persuasive (1). Humourous ads are seen as less credible and relevant. There is a fine line between distracting and engaging with humour – the former risks the brand message being overlooked, and the credibility and relevance of the message being impeded. Further, once a joke is made and understood, repetition risks boring or annoying. Nevertheless the difference is small which suggests there are many humourous ads which are persuasive. Here are four ads from which made us smile and allow us to uncover more lessons:

Heineken (Heineken) (UK)

Heineken is one of the world’s most popular lagers. Created by CDP, their ‘refreshes the parts’ campaign was one of the longest running in advertising history (30 years).

Why does this ad work?

The campaign idea and message reflects the most universally appealing benefit in the category – ‘refreshment’.
Strong secondary benefits – social desirability and cleverness; antidotes to the ‘down-trodden’ married male stereotype.
This ad ‘refreshes the pets’; it twists the original strapline and parodies the Dulux Paints’ campaign – this is also evidence that the long running joke was wearing thin. The campaign was dropped in 2005.

Old Spice (Procter and Gamble)(Global)

Old Spice is a men’s fragrance. When acquired by P&G in the mid 1980s it had a slightly faded image.

Why does this ad work?

We’re unsure of the extent to which this drives sales and question how aspirational this ad is to men! We suspect there is more to this ad than meets the eye!
The target is more likely to be females who wish to buy a gift/make a statement to their partner rather than males.
The message is make your man a dream man (dream he is a real man, make a joke to your man that he isn’t a real man and express a desire for a real man…).
This ad has spawned a significant number of spoofs and is a huge social media talking point. (UK) is an insurance comparison site competing in a market where the cost per click for ‘insurance’ terms is very high.

Why does this ad work?

This ad  campaign (VCCP) has driven significant online traffic directly to two websites and fuelled a burgeoning industry of meerkat toys (Aleksandr Orlov and his family). It has injected a stand-out personality in an otherwise ‘low interest’ and price driven category.
The benefit of cheap car insurance and distinctive personality is appealing and engaging. The joke is that ‘compare the market’ sounds like ‘compare the meerkat’ in Russian. Having researched this ad in Russia, the humour only works in the UK!

Head and Shoulders Anti-Hair Loss Shampoo (Procter and Gamble)(UK, US)

Head and Shoulders Anti-Hair Loss Shampoo is a relatively new product (2009) that’s available in the UK and US.

Why does this ad work?

First up we’re not sure whether the ad drives sales but it is hilarious. Since the ad was created (Saatchi and Saatchi), the product appears to have been repositioned from anti-hair loss to hair endurance. The former benefit (being to avoid a negative) while the latter is clearly positive. In our experience positive benefits are more appealing than avoiding disbenefits.
While the absurdity of the idea is amusing it impedes the relevance and credibility of the message. For example, the idea of ‘loving your hair before it leaves’ undermines the core proposition of ‘anti-hair loss’. Nevertheless this is a slightly taboo subject area, and the ‘off-the-wall’ humour and gentle tale is dramatic, disarming and engaging. This may even reduce self-consciousness and increase propensity to discuss the subject more openly. Let us know what you think.

Marketing Inspiration
1. Consider using humour in markets that are plain boring, commodity-oriented and rationally driven. Humour works in many ways to lower barriers to engagement, inject personality and increase brand stand-out.
2. Humour needs channelling with care to ensure the brand message is clear and persuasive.
3. Humour can be both simple and complex. It is coded – so make sure you know how it works before building it into your strategy.
4. Explore and test a series humour codes and personalities in markets where humour is highly prevalent, for example, beer (UK).
5. Not all humour travels. Use humour with more caution in less developed markets. It is fine to develop an over-arching international strategy using humour yet allow localisation.
6. Humourous campaigns sometimes wear out quickly. Make sure your production budget is big enough to keep the idea fresh.


(1) Millward Brown. Does Humor Make Ads More Effective? (2007) Humourous adverts are those considered ‘funny’ or ‘light-hearted’ as opposed to having ‘no intended humour’. Impact is based on Millward Brown’s Awareness Index (AI) and is calculated by looking at the rise in prompted ad awareness per 100 GRPs that is generated above the base level factoring out “diminishing returns” i.e. that it is harder to go from 60-70% than from 20-30%.
(2) Nielsen’s survey of Trust in Advertising (Sept 2013) is based on 29,000 respondents in 58 countries.
(3) Banks, S. Cross-national analysis of advertising expenditures. Journal of Advertising Research 26 (2), 11-24 (1986)
(4) McGraw, Peter; Warner, Joel. The Humor Code – A Global Search for What Makes Things Funny (2014)

Guy Tomlinson runs bespoke and open Marketing Communications Masterclasses – to help marketers create cut-through communications. Check dates and availability here.

Brand naming: What’s in name? It’s a Hullabaloo. #HCAFC

Hull City Association Football Club was founded in 1904. In August 2013, Chairman Assem Allam (1) submitted a request to the Football Association to change the club name to Hull Tigers Ltd. And all hell has broken loose. Dr. Allam says that the name change will be shorter and snappier, and more marketable. Lobbying Group ‘City ‘Til We Die’ say ‘no’; it has almost 6000 members and is growing. The FA will make a decision at the end of the season. So what’s in a name – a brand name?

There is no record of the first person to shout ‘Up the Tigers!’ but the first reference in print to ‘The Tigers’ appeared in the Hull Daily Mail in March 1905. In the season that Hull City first wore a black and amber strip. The first ‘Tiger’ badge appeared on the strip in 1947, and over the years it has taken many forms (2).

Brand naming

The first appearance of a tiger on the Hull City kit

As a marketer, my experience is that the most successful businesses and brands are customer driven. All marketing activities should be designed to meet customer needs, improve stand-out and increase appeal. And the proposed changes are patently unappealing to a sizeable proportion of the fans. Many say they will boycott matches and refuse to renew their season passes.

As a marketer and Hull City supporter, I’m curious about the business case. If there is evidence that a name change will benefit the Club, Dr. Allam seems reluctant to share it.

Dr. Allam has lived in the City of Hull since the 1960s. He’s a successful businessman and his investment in Hull City has helped it reach the Premiership. He says the word ‘City’ is lousy and common and if he doesn’t get his way he’ll leave (3). This is a very emotional response. His words don’t sound like those of a Hull or Hull City supporter to me.

On the plus side, the hullabaloo surrounding the name change has given Hull a bit of publicity. Not bad for a team, only in its third year in the Premiership. And high brand awareness is an important characteristic of a strong brand.  Fortunately, there is much more to a football brand than a name. Product performance has thus far held up, thanks to Mr. Bruce and the team. The Club has built huge equity in entertaining and bringing generations together. Through highs and lows. Not just the roller coaster ride in winning and losing, but through going to matches and putting money in a bucket to pay the team’s wages. And that says a lot when folk don’t have much money. Bonds don’t get much stronger.

There are many examples of brands repositioning to attract wider audiences and improve performance. Hull City AFC, as all clubs, has evolved over generations. Inspired, almost entirely, by ownership, management and team changes. There are also examples of brands undergoing complete makeovers without changing name. Witness for example, Lucozade. There are football clubs that have changed name, and lost their fan bases (Wimbledon FC), yet were born again with a new fan base (MK Dons). And original brands that rose again (AFC Wimbledon, the Dons). Hull City is the Tigers. The words “City” and “the Tigers” are used interchangeably on the terraces. In overseas countries, the Club can be positioned in a myriad of ways to drive local demand.

On the down side, Dr. Allam has alienated lots of supporters. I’m unsure whether he has attracted any overseas. Football clubs belong to supporters, largely local communities, as well as owners. The supporters and owners are also part of the brand – not the brand itself. Dr. Allam’s investment is welcomed but his tone is not. What the fans are really rejecting is Dr. Allam’s arrogance and implied transience.

The change in the East Yorkshire county name should be remembered. In 1974, East Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire were forcibly changed to Humberside. For the next 22 years those who moved away sent letters home to the old address. In 1996, Humberside was abolished and the original county names restored.

What’s odd is that no commercial evidence has been forthcoming to support a change. Though there are now a few who are putting their heads above the parapet expressing support for the change. Though their claims appear subjective, which suggests they may be PR inspired (4). Without hard-nosed evidence this compounds my belief that the case for change is flimsy.

I wonder whether Dr. Allam has been seduced into announcing a name change by a new design idea. Taking a look at the present badge, it is easy to imagine the streamlining possibilities in dropping the AFC. This is how designers think. Presently, there may be a small Google ranking benefit, and page view increase, by funneling Hull City and the Tigers searches into a single Hull City Tigers url. But this may be undermined if it changes again.

Brand naming

Hull City AFC badge 2014

Some say the name change is a sublime masterplan to build awareness? Whatever the answer, success in the home market will require a change of tone and a credible message. It is not too late to ‘fess up’.

Marketing Inspiration
1. Branding, like marketing is widely misunderstood. Brands are not just logos or names. Marketers must never forget this point and help others understand.
2. Brands live in the hearts and minds of customers – the supporters. They are the summation of all thoughts and feelings – including memories – through tough times and good.
3. Football club brands have symbiotic relationships with communities. Clubs represent communities, communities support clubs. The brand is a shared interest and experience. The community is part of the experience i.e. part of the brand. This is why supporters have strong relationships with clubs; they wear the kit, the colours etc. Everything that the brand stands for runs though supporters like a stick of rock. It signals I’m like you, share your beliefs, hopes, and fears.
4. Changing names for community embedded brands should be undertaken with caution. There is a risk of destroying community engagement. When an owner dictates a course of action it signals, someone or something has different beliefs, personality traits. That I’m not like you and that detracts from the shared brand experience.
5. It is dangerous to make decisions on gut-feel, dangerous to invent spurious logic to support an idea, and dangerous not to be transparent. It is better to use research and evidence to make decisions. This will ensure that all risks and pitfalls are identified and mitigated.
6. The start-point is to think about the perceptions brands wish to create. To build on strengths and refine weaknesses. Perceptions are created by the product – the team and the team performance. Perceptions can be influenced by promotion and without changing names. This is why the advertising industry is a multi-billion business.
7. If you need a business partner, remember brands are more than logos.
8. If you seek free publicity, stir up a storm in a teacup.

(1) Dr. Assem Allam is a successful entrepreneur. Born in Egypt, he studied at Hull University in the 1960s and decided to stay in the City of Hull. His business Allam Marine supplies and sells generators. At number 214 in the Sunday Times Rich List, and a philanthropist, he has made donations to Hull FC, the University of Hull and Hull Truck Theatre Co. among others.
(4) The work of a public relations company

Guerilla marketing

The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, Netherlands, one of the world’s most wonderful museums had an idea.

To celebrate the reopening of our museum, let’s bring the art to the people and then, hopefully, they will come to see more – at the art gallery.

They took one of Rembrandt’s most famous paintings ‘The Night Watch’ (1), brought to life the characters in it, and placed them in a busy mall in Breda. The rest you can see for yourself!

Marketing Inspiration

Great marketing just requires a great idea (sometimes!)

(1) Painted by Rembrandt van Rijn in 1642 “The Night Watch” is one of the most famous paintings in the world. The painting is renowned for three things: its enormous size (12 ft × 14 ft)), the effective use of light and shadow (chiaroscuro), and the perception of motion in what would have traditionally been a static military portrait. The painting may be more accurately titled The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburch preparing to march out.

Investing a Brand with Personality

Kulula – The Airline That Doesn’t Take Itself Seriously
Having identified a gap in the market for a low-cost airline to bring air travel to the South African masses, launched in July 2001. It operates on major domestic routes out of Tambo International Airport and Lanseria on the outskirts of Johannesburg.  As building a business based on price alone would make it vulnerable to attack from more established airlines, it has hewn a positioning based on ease, inspirational service and safety. This is summed up in its name which means ‘easy’ in Zulu. Though most distinctive are the personality traits of the brand.  Being totally honest, straight-forward and helping people lighten up. is an airline that doesn’t take itself too seriously. Its humourous personality is evident in all aspects of the brand experience:

Launching with a budget of just 3m rand (c. £200k) demands cut-through communication. Their super heroes launch campaign with catchy jingle espouses “Now Everyone Can Fly”. Watch the launch trailer and note there isn’t an aircraft to be seen.

Product and service appearance
Similarly to easyjet’s bright orange in the UK, Kulula has adopted a distinctive lime green livery.  The unconventional markings include ‘this way up’ and arrows pointing to parts of the aircraft, for example, rudder, nose cone, sun-roof and where ‘the big cheese’ (‘captain, my captain’) sits.

kulula aircraft

Public relations
In 2010 South Africa hosted the FIFA World Cup and ran a campaign describing itself as the “Unofficial National Carrier of the You-Know-What”, which took place “Not next year, not last year, but somewhere in between”. Another advert announced “affordable flights [to] everybody except Sepp Blatter” (the FIFA president), who was offered a free seat “for the duration of that thing that is happening right now”. Obviously, oblique references to the World Cup which FIFA intervened to stop. Thus creating even more publicity for Kulula.
Kulula flight crew are encouraged to be friendly and let their natural talent show through. This is evident in the entertaining in-flight “safety lecture” and announcements. Here are some examples that have been heard or reported:

“Welcome aboard Kulula 271 to Port Elizabeth. To operate your seat belt, insert the metal tab into the buckle, and pull tight. It works just like every other seat belt; and, if you don’t know how to operate one, you probably shouldn’t be out in public unsupervised.”

Meet Kay Lula … the hostess with the mostess …..

“Weather at our destination is 50 degrees with some broken clouds, but we’ll try to have them fixed before we arrive. Thank you, and remember, nobody loves you, or your money, more than Kulula Airlines.”

“Your seats cushions can be used for flotation; and in the event of an emergency water landing, please paddle to shore and take them with our compliments.”

“Kulula Airlines is pleased to announce that we have some of the best flight attendants in the industry. Unfortunately, none of them are on this flight!”

“We’ve reached cruising altitude and will be turning down the cabin lights. This is for your comfort and to enhance the appearance of your flight attendants.”

Here are some comments heard after a few extremely hard landings ….

“Please remain in your seats until Captain Crash and the Crew have brought the aircraft to a screeching halt against the gate. And, once the tyre smoke has cleared and the warning bells are silenced, we will open the door and you can pick your way through the wreckage to the terminal..”

“Please take care when opening the overhead compartments because, after a landing like that, sure as hell everything has shifted.”

The airline has a policy which requires the first officer to stand at the door while the passengers exit, smile, and provide a “thanks for flying our airline”. In light of a particularly bad landing, he had a hard time looking the passengers in the eye, thinking that someone would have a smart comment. Finally a little old lady walking with a cane disembarked saying,

“Sir, do you mind if I ask you a question?” “Why, no Ma’am,” said the pilot. “What is it?” “Did we land, or were we shot down?” said the little old lady.

Part of a flight attendant’s arrival announcement:

“We’d like to thank you folks for flying with us today. And, the next time you get the insane urge to go blasting through the skies in a pressurized metal tube, we hope you’ll think of Kulula Airways.”

“As you exit the plane, make sure to gather all of your belongings. Anything left behind will be distributed evenly among the flight attendants. Please do not leave children or spouses.”

“Please be sure to take all of your belongings. If you’re going to leave anything, please make sure it’s something we’d like to have.”

“Thank you for flying Kulula. We hope you enjoyed giving us the business as much as we enjoyed taking you for a ride.”

Marketing Inspiration

1. Designing brands with personality, i.e. characteristics, beliefs and behaviours enhances stand-out.
2. In a world awash with corporate grey, a rich and clear personality, injects colour and breathes life into brands. Executed effectively this maximises impact, engages and forges a strong emotional connection with customers.
3. When problems occur or disasters strike, as are prone happen in the service industry, a self-deprecating or humourous personality can defuse issues and provide a stress release or antidote. 
As Kulula says “smiles and jokes are free” (1). And great ideas make budgets go further.
4. A humourous brand message and personality engages ane entertains. In turn this creates a talking point and encourages sharing via social media and email. And leave readers to question whether this is an April Fool’s joke or not….


Thanks to Joe Flynn for inspiring this article

The Marketing of Christmas with Music

SFX: Christmas Bells: Ring, ring. Ring, ring!

Music has long been associated with Christmas, and Christmas with music. The first specifically Christmas hymns (carols) for Christians appeared in the fourth century. Music is also a terrific gift; the size of the market increases in the run up to Christmas and record labels battle to win the coveted #1 single and album slots. Marketers are also catching on to the power of music at Christmas.

For the last three years, John Lewis has been top of the pops in using music to market their business. The Gabrielle Aplin cover of ‘The Power of Love’ used in John Lewis’ 2012 Christmas campaign by Adam & Eve/DDB knocked Olly Murs off the top of the official UK singles chart on 10 December. You can watch it here.

John Lewis’s sales for the week ending Saturday 8 December rose 15% year on year to £142m. John Lewis is attributing this to the success of its “omnichannel strategy”. It says sales were driven by customers looking for that special Christmas gift, including gloves, cashmere, lingerie, handbags or jewellery. The strong performance of gloves as a gift coincides with the Christmas ad showing a snowman making a long journey to get a pair of gloves for his snowwoman.

In 2011, John Lewis used the Slow Moving Millie soundtrack, ‘Please, please, please’ to promote its Christmas offer. This has amassed nearly 5m You Tube views.

Ellie Goulding’s haunting cover of Elton John’s ‘Your Song’ was used in its 2010 Christmas ad. But can you recall the ads pre 2009?

Our Christmas card to you!

Since we founded our marketing consultancy in 2005, we’ve included lyrics from Christmas songs in our cards. Finding lyrics that convey the right sentiments is a tough task! Matching words and pictures is equally difficult. This year we’ve selected lyrics from a song written by Leigh Haggerwood called ‘My Favourite Time of Year’. Disappointed at the high-jacking of the Christmas charts by likes of X-Factor, Leigh wrote this song to reflect the true values of Christmas. Funded without the backing of a record label, and promoted only by social media it charted at just 40 in December 2010. You can watch it here. ‘There is goodwill in the air tonight’. We wish you a Merry Christmas and Prosperous 2014!

Marketing Inspiration

1. Music elicits powerful emotional responses and influences behaviour. It’s also powerful in rekindling memories. Thus if used correctly the sound of sleigh bells can have a powerful effect on tills.

2. Remember the narrative. While many John Lewis ads pre 2009 also used music, for example, Taken by the Trees version of ‘Sweet Child of Mine’ in 2009, Virginia Labuat’s version of ‘From me To You’ in 2008 and Prokoviev’s Romeo and Juliet in 2007, none are arguably as emotionally engaging and heart warming as the more recent ads.

3. Ensure consistency in communications (through different channels and over time) to help get the message across, be understood and acted upon.